THE SELFISH BRAIN THEORY
The Selfish Brain Clinical Research Group
www.selfish-brain.net 
Selected Publications:
Bernd Schultes, Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine
Medical Clinic I, University of Luebeck, Germany

  1. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Peters A, Kern W, Beyer J, Pfutzner A (1998) Influence of sex differences in subcutaneous fat mass on serum leptin concentrations. Diabetes Care 21:1204-1205

  2. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Deininger E, Wellhoener P, Kerner W, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (1999) Protective effect of insulin against hypoglycemia-associated counterregulatory failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:1551-1557

  3. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Peters A, Kern W, Beyer J, Pfutzner A (1999) Serum leptin is associated with serum uric acid concentrations in humans. Metabolism 48:677-680

  4. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Bong W, Wellhoener P, Kerner W, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (1999) Supraphysiological hyperinsulinemia acutely increases hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal secretory activity in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:3041-3046

  5. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Beyer J, Forst T, Pfutzner A, Peters A (1999) Elevated serum leptin concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. Metabolism 48:1290-1293

  6. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Born J, Peters A, Fehm HL (2000) Adaptation of cognitive function to hypoglycemia in healthy men. Diabetes Care 23:1059-1066

  7. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Dantz D, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2000) Preserved hypothermic response to hypoglycemia after antecedent hypoglycemia. Metabolism 49:794-798

  8. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2000) Comparison of the inhibitory effect of insulin and hypoglycemia on insulin secretion in humans. Metabolism 49:950-953

  9. Peters A, Ehlers M, Blank B, Exler D, Falk C, Kohlmann T, Fruehwald-Schultes B, Wellhoener P, Kerner W, Fehm HL (2000) Excess Triiodothyronine as a risk factor of coronary events. Arch Intern Med 160:1993-1999

  10. Wellhoener P, Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Dantz D, Kerner W, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2000) Glucose metabolism rather than insulin is a main determinant of leptin secretion in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85: 1267-1271

  11. Deininger E, Oltmanns KM, Wellhoener P, Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Heuer B, Dominiak P, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2001) Losartan attenuates symptomatic and hormonal responses to hypoglycemia in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 70:362-369

  12. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2001) Hyperinsulinemia causes activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25 Suppl 1:S38-40

  13. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Oltmanns KM, Sopke S, Toscheck B, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2001) Metformin does not adversely affect hormonal and symptomatic responses to recurrent hypoglycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4187-4192,

  14. Kern W, Peters A, Fruehwald-Schultes B, Deininger E, Born J, Fehm HL (2001) Improving influence of insulin on cognitive functions in humans. Neuroendocrinology 74:270-80

  15. Oltmanns KM, Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2001)Hypoglycemia, but not insulin, acutely decreases lh and t secretion in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4913-9

  16. Dantz D, Bewersdorf J, Fruehwald-Schultes B, Kern W, Jelkmann W, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2002) Vascular endothelial growth factor: a novel endocrine defensive response to hypoglycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:835-40

  17. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Oltmanns KM, Kern W, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2002) The effect of experimentally induced insulin resistance on the leptin response to hyperinsulinaemia. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:510-516

  18. Fruehwald-Schultes B, Oltmanns KM, Toschek B, Sopke S, Kern W, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2002) Short-term treatment with metformin decreases serum leptin concentration without affecting body weight and body fat content in normal-weight healthy men. Metabolism 51:531-6

  19. Perras B, Schultes B, Schwaiger R, Metz C, Wesseler W, Born J, Fehm HL (2002) Growth hormone-releasing hormone facilitates hypoglycemia-induced release of cortisol. Regul Pept 110:85-91

  20. Schultes B, Oltmanns KM, Kern W, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2002) Acute and prolonged effects of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on the pituitary-thyroid axis in humans. Metabolism 51:1370-4

  21. Gais S, Born J, Peters A, Schultes B, Heindl B., Fehm HL, Kern W (2003) Hypoglycemic counterregulation during sleep. Sleep 26:55-59

  22. Oltmanns KM, Deininger,E, Wellhoener P, Schultes B, Kern W, Marx E, Dominiak P, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2003) Influence of captopril on symptomatic and hormonal responses to hypoglycemia in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 55: 347-353

  23. Schultes B, Oltmanns KM, Kern W, Fehm HL, Born J, Peters A (2003) Modulation of hunger by plasma glucose and metformin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1131-1141

  24. Merl V, Kern W, Peters A, Oltmanns K, Gais S, Born J, Fehm HL, Schultes B (2004) Differences between night-time and daytime hypoglycaemia counterregulation in healthy humans. Metabolism, 53:894-8

  25. Oltmanns K, Gehring H., Rudolf S, Schultes B, Rook St., Schweiger U, Born J, Fehm H.L., Peters A. (2004) Hypoxia causes glucose intolerance in humans Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 169:1231-7

  26. Benedict C, Hallschmid M, Hatke A, Schultes B, Fehm HL, Born J, Kern W (2004) Intranasal insulin improves memory in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29:1326-34.

  27. Hallschmid M, Schultes B, Marshall L, Mölle M, KernW, Bredthauer J, FehmHL, Born J (2004) Transcortical direct current potential shift reflects immediate signalling of systemic insulin to the human brain, Diabetes, 53:2202-8.

  28. Perras B, Schultes B, Behn B, Dodt C, Born J, Fehm HL (2004) Intranasal atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) acts as central nervous inhibitor of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress system in humans, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 4642-4648

  29. Merl V, Peters A, Oltmanns KM, Kern W, Hubold C, Hallschmid M, Born J, FehmHL,Schultes B (2004) Preserved circadian rhythm of serum insulin concentration at low plasma glucose during fasting in lean and overweight humans, Metabolism 53:1449-1453

  30. Hallschmid M, Benedict B, Schultes B, Fehm HL, Born J, Kern W (2004) Intranasal insulin reduces body fat in men but not in women. Diabetes 53:3024-3029

  31. Schultes B, Kern W, Oltmanns KM, Peters A, Gais S, Fehm HL, Born J (2005) Differential adaptation of human neurocognitive brain functions to recurrent hypoglycemia in healthy men, Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:149-161

  32. Kern W, Peters A, Born J, Fehm HL, Schultes B (2005) Changes in blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels during prolonged hyperinsulinaemia, Metabolism 54:391-396

  33. Oltmanns KM, Peters A, Kern W, Fehm HL, Born J, Schultes B (2005) Preserved inhibitory effect of recurrent hypoglycemia on male gonadotropic axis. Clin Endocrinol 62:217-222

  34. Benedict C, Hallschmid M, Scheibner J, Niemeyer D, Schultes B, Merl V, Fehm HL, Born J, Kern W (2004) Gut protein uptake and mechanisms of meal induced cortisol release, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, Epub ahead of print

  35. Schultes B, Peters A, Kern W, Gais S, Oltmanns KM, Fehm HL, Born J (2005) Processing of food stimuli is selectively enhanced during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in healthy men, Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:496-504

  36. Merl V, Peters A, Oltmanns KM, Kern W, Hubold C, Fehm HL, Born J, Schultes B (2005) Antecedent hypoglycaemia attenuates vascular endothelial growth factor response to subsequent hypoglycaemia in healthy men, Diabetic medicine, in press

  37. Merl V, Peters A, Oltmanns KM, Kern W, Born J, Fehm HL, Schultes B (2004) Serum adiponectin concentrations during a 72-hour fast in over-weight and normal-weight humans, Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, in press

  38. Oltmanns K, Gehringm H, Rudolf S, Schultes B, Hackenberg C, Schweiger U, Born J, Fehm HL, Peters A (2005) Acute hypoxia decreases plasma VEGF concentration in healthy humans, in revision